CONCERNS AND RESULTING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TYRES



Introduction

Indian Tyre industry is one of the biggest contributors of about 8% in India's manufacturing sectors and tyre exports have grown at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 8% for FY 2019-21. These numbers are surely promising in terms that India's Tyre Industry is and will be growing rapidly. But, the most sought-after concern for India has always been negligence of people towards road safety, which are causes of many tyres related issues.

From the time vehicles were invented, tyre has been a crucial part of it. When it comes to safety, tyres play a major role in restricting the movement of the vehicle. The brakes stop the wheels, not your car! Even in the wake of being a crucial component of vehicle, its significance is often ignored by the people. Road accidents are an issue of worldwide concern. Globally, road safety is revolving around the statistics of the number of crashes and their consequences in terms of deaths, serious injuries and economic loss to nations.


STATISTICS

National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) deliver the records which state 140,000 people to be killed in unfortunate road crashes in 2015. The records state an estimation mark of 2 million people who were injured in road crashes across India in the year 2015.

In 2019, 151.42 thousand individuals lost their lives in street mishap and most of them were victims of tyre explosion. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank estimates that this number could grow by 67% until the year 2020 if nothing is done to limit the impact.

Statistical data deliver that more than a million people die due to road accidents every year globally. Aiming to reduce fatalities by 50 per cent, the United nations has announced 2011-2020 as the 'Decade of Action for Road Safety'. UN identified five pillars to achieve this target.


TYRE BURST: WHY

The phenomenon of bursting of tyres is a result of rapid loss of rapid loss of pressurized air from the tyre. As the structure of tyre gets disrupted, it is not capable of holding the pressurized air inside it anymore. As a result, the pressurized air escapes by tearing through the tyre. This process happens rapidly causing an explosion resulting in severe grotesque to the tyre surface.

The major reason of this phenomenon to take place are:

1. Direct Impact:

When unavoidable object on the road is hit by the tyres of the vehicle, the resulting impact could slash the tyre surface at some point. The possibility of such an impact is very high and is hence an important factor due to which tyre bursting takes place.

2. High Temperatures:

Heat is a major factor of concern when it comes to tyre explosion. Excessive build-up of heat on the surface of tyres of inside the tyre is a major factor which is responsible for tyre burst to occur. As temperature is directly proportional to pressure, as the process of heat buildup proceeds, it causes the air inside the tyres to get hotter leading it to be pressurized and in turn the tyres expanding and explode. Furthermore, along with the heat, friction between the surface of the road and the tyre surface makes it hotter from the outside which results into weakening the rubber. This heat-build that takes place on the surface of the tyre and inside the tyre is even more on the days when the temperature is high. So, old tyres and hot days are surely the reasons for bursting of tyres.

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3. High Speed:

Each tyre is rated for a particular speed which it is meant to function properly at. Beyond the limit mentioned, the tyre structure is incapable of handling the higher friction levels.

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4. Under-Inflation:

The most common reason of a bursting of tyres is improper levels of air pressure in the tyres. Over-inflation is not much of a concern when compared with under inflation. As per the studies, under-inflation is the reason behind approximately 75% of tyre burst accidents. Under-inflated tyres cause increase in contact patch with the road since tyres with this condition suffer from excessive flexing leading to accumulation of more frictional force. This results in increased heat build-up within the tyre. The heat build-up arising as a result of under-inflation is much greater than what arises as a result of driving on a really hot summer day.

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TECHNOLOGY IN TYRE INDUSTRY

Use of radial tyres in vehicles is much more promising due to its advantages like absorption of shock, bumps and impact better than bias tyres, generates less heat which in turn increases tyre life and performance. Burst and puncture prevention technology is emerging as it provides higher air retention property and even heat distribution leading to reduction in cracks, heat accumulation and bursts in tyres. Tyre and road condition sensing technology analyses road conditions in real time with the help of sensors making safe and secure transport or driving. Different technologies are developed and developing that can ensure hassle free, efficient and fast transport. Serious acceptance of road safety by people in our country with backing of developing tyre industry will lead us to the path of developed country with worldwide recognition of our efforts in field of road and automotive welfare.

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Improvement and development of new technologies for efficient freight transport from one part of country to another can lead to reduction in layover times of trucks/containers, quick repair of any damage to vehicle, fast transport facility, more efficient processing of logistics related information. Emerging and present technologies in tyre industry are encouraging as development in internal structure of tyres of vehicles can steer our ways to minimum mishaps, injuries and accidents leading to safe driving and less stressful experience.

By - Shivang Jitendra Khare

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